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http://www.knightfdn.org/

Note: This is the 2004 report. If you're looking for the 2005 report, go to www.asu.edu/cronkite/asne.

Does your newspaper's staff
reflect the racial diversity
of the community it serves?

A report for the Knight Foundation
on 1,413 American newspapers
and their circulation areas

by Bill Dedman and Stephen K. Doig
May 2004


Summary:

Each daily newspaper in the United States now has a Web page comparing the racial diversity of its news staff and the community it serves, part of a new report for the Knight Foundation on 1,413 newspapers and their circulation areas.

The report -- on the Web at www.asu.edu/cronkite/asne -- is intended to help journalists and readers discuss how well their newspaper's staff reflects their community.

The Knight Foundation asked journalists Bill Dedman and Stephen K. Doig to add context to the annual survey of newspapers by the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE). Highlights of their report:

  • This year only 13 percent of newspapers responding to the survey have reached ASNE's goal of parity between newsroom and community non-white percentages. That's up slightly from last year's 11 percent..

  • The nation's 374 all-white newspapers are listed in the report. (And that's not counting the 481 newspapers that didnít reply to the most recent ASNE survey.) Their editors reported no employees of black, Hispanic, Asian or Native American descent in any job as a newsroom supervisor, reporter, copy editor, photographer or artist.

    Although many of these all-white newspapers are small, they have a combined weekday circulation of 3,790,285 -- well more than USA Today and The New York Times combined.

    Nor are all the all-white newsrooms in all-white communities. The list is led by The Independent, in Gallup, N.M., where the circulation area is 93 percent non-white.

  • Some newspaper companies are doing much better than others at hiring and retaining minority employees. Gannett Co. is the leader, measured by a Newsroom Diversity Index, which compares the share of jobs held by journalists of color with the non-white share of the population in the newspaper's circulation area. Gannett's index is 88. (100 equals parity with the circulation area.)

    Gannett is followed by Knight Ridder (Calif.), 76; McClatchy Co. (Calif.), 72; New York Times Co., 66; Advance (Newhouse) (N.J.), 65; Cox Enterprises (Ga.), 60; Freedom Communications (Calif.), 60; Pulitzer (Mo.), 55; Tribune Co. (Ill.), 54; Ogden Newspapers (W.Va.), 52; Scripps (Ohio), 52; Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.), 51; Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.), 51; Washington Post Co., 50; Belo (Texas), 49; Dow Jones (N.Y.), 47; Copley Press (Calif.), 41; Hearst Newspapers (N.Y.), 40; MediaNews Group (Colo.), 40; Lee Enterprises (Iowa), 38; Hollinger International (Ill.), 36; Media General (Va.), 33; Morris Communications (Ga.), 26; Journal Register (N.J.), 19; and Paxton Media Group (Ky.), 5. (These are circulation-weighted averages, with larger newspapers in the group counting more toward the average.)

  • While the non-white share of newsroom seats has risen generally, most newspapers are below their peak, as measured by ASNE's surveys from 1990 to 2004. (This is based on raw ASNE figures for minority employment, not making a comparison with the community. In most of the U.S., a newspaper maintaining the same minority staff percentage would be losing ground each year, as the minority population increases.)

    The nation's four largest newspapers have slipped in the share of newsroom jobs filled by journalists of color: USA Today had its highest level of journalists of color in the 1994 report (employment at the end of 1993), The Wall Street Journal in the 2000 report, The New York Times in last year's report, and The Los Angeles Times in 2000.

    Other papers in the top 25 that are below their peak level are the New York Daily News (peaked in the 1995 report), Chicago Tribune (1998), Newsday (2002), San Francisco Chronicle (1998), The Arizona Republic (last year), The Miami Herald (1999), The Star Tribune in Minneapolis (2001), and The Plain Dealer in Cleveland (1995).

    Papers in the top 25 that reached their peak employment of non-whites this year are The Washington Post, Houston Chronicle, The Dallas Morning News, The Boston Globe, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Detroit Free Press, The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Oregonian, and The St. Petersburg Times.

For every newspaper, the online report has a Web page giving details on the population of the circulation area, and the paper's year-by-year responses to the ASNE survey. In addition, for the 857 papers that file audited sales reports by ZIP Code, the report shows the racial and ethnic breakdown in each ZIP Code, the household income, and sales per household. Online maps for these papers allow a reader to view the newspaper's circulation area.

Newspaper editors, newspaper readers and community leaders can use the report to discuss such questions as:

  • In which communities and neighborhoods does our newspaper sell well? or poorly?

  • Are the low-sales neighborhoods explained by household incomes? by competition from other papers? Do race, ethnicity and language play a role?

  • Does our newspaper have more readers in minority areas than we had thought? Or fewer?

  • Is our newspaper missing a business opportunity? Would having more reporters and editors of color help the paper get more news of interest to readers of color? Even with the current staff, what steps can the newspaper take to raise its awareness of news of interest to all readers?

  • When did our newspaper's non-white staffing reach its peak? What has happened since? What are the barriers to hiring and retaining journalists of color?

  • What explains the persistent number of all-white newsrooms, even in communities with many readers of color?

Since 1978, the American Society of Newspaper Editors has urged editors to improve news coverage by employing at least enough minority journalists to reflect their diverse communities. This year again ASNE reported slow progress in total non-white employment, as a result falling further behind the growing non-white population of the nation.

But not all newspapers are alike. The report for the Knight Foundation, now in its second year, gives updated answers to these questions:

  1. How many communities are still getting their news from all-white newsrooms?

  2. How close are most newspapers to parity with their circulation areas?

  3. How many newspapers are increasing their employment of journalists of color?

  4. How many newspapers are at their high-water mark?

  5. Are the larger newspapers the ones with more diverse staffs?

  6. Which newspaper companies better reflect their communities?

To see a report for an individual newspaper, follow the links at the top left of this page.

And summaries and rankings are in the following tables:



Tables:

Table 1: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 2: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 3: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 4: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 5: Details of race and ethnicity in newspaper circulation areas: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 6: Details of race and ethnicity in newspaper circulation areas: All daily newspapers, by state and city (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 7: Large newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 8: Small newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 9: All-white newsrooms: Newspapers employing no journalists of color, ranked by non-white population in circulation area (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

Table 10: Newspapers not responding to the ASNE survey, ranked by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format



Discussion:

1. How many communities are still getting their news from all-white newsrooms?

No people of color work in 374 American newspapers. (And that's not counting the 481 newspapers that didnít reply to the most recent ASNE survey.)

Many of these 374 all-white newspapers are small, but they have a combined weekday circulation of 3,790,285 -- well more than USA Today and The New York Times combined.

Some of these all-white newspapers are in communities that are themselves nearly all white. Even in those communities, ASNE's goal calls for employment of at least one journalist of color. But many of the all-white newsrooms are in communities with substantial non-white populations. The list is led by The Independent, in Gallup, N.M., where the circulation area is 93 percent non-white. And one-third of the all-white newsrooms serve communities that are at least 10 percent non-white.



Here are the 20 least-white communities with all-white newsrooms:


Rank

Non-white % in circulation area

Newspaper

State

Ownership

1

93

The Independent, Gallup

NM

2

75

The Daily News, Sunnyside

WA

Eagle Newspapers (Ore.)

3

66

The Greenwood Commonwealth

MS

Emmerich Newspapers (Miss.)

4

65

The Selma Times-Journal

AL

Boone Newspapers (Ala.)

5

61

The Daily World, Helena

AR

Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.)

6

60

Rocky Ford Daily Gazette

CO

7

60

Hereford Brand

TX

8

54

The Natchez Democrat

MS

Boone Newspapers (Ala.)

9

50

The Sun, Texas City

TX

Southern Newspapers (Texas)

10

49

The Ennis Daily News

TX

Fackelman Newspapers (Fla.)

11

47

The Union-Recorder, Milledgeville

GA

Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.)

12

46

Hobbs Daily News-Sun

NM

13

44

Enterprise-Journal, McComb

MS

Emmerich Newspapers (Miss.)

14

43

Ruston Daily Leader

LA

Fackelman Newspapers (Fla.)

15

42

Starkville Daily News

MS

16

41

News, Hopewell

VA

17

40

Hope Star

AR

18

40

The Messenger, Troy

AL

Boone Newspapers (Ala.)

19

39

The Daily Territorial, Tucson

AZ

Wick Communications (Ariz.)

20

38

Arizona Daily Sun, Flagstaff

AZ

Pulitzer (Mo.)


A full list of the all-white newsrooms is in
Table 9: All-white newsrooms: Newspapers reporting no journalists of color, ranked by non-white population in circulation area (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format



2. How close are most newspapers to parity with their circulation areas?

The rarities are still the dailies who have reached ASNE's goal. Only 13 percent of newspapers responding to the survey have reached parity between the newsroom and community minority, up slightly from last year's 11 percent.

Only 34 percent of newspapers are even halfway to the goal, up from 32 percent last year.



Here's how newspapers were dispersed by Newsroom Diversity Index:
  % of Newspapers Reporting No. of Newspapers Reporting
  2003 2004 2003 2004
100 percent parity or better 11% 13% 101 123
75 to 99 percent 7% 7% 61 61
50 to 74 percent 14% 14% 129 132
25 to 49 percent 21% 18% 195 169
1 to 24 percent 8% 8% 75 73
All-white newsrooms 40% 40% 372 374

The Newsroom Diversity Index for larger newspapers is detailed in
Table 1: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format

The Newsroom Diversity Index for all newspapers is in
Table 2: Ranking by 2004 Newsroom Diversity Index: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format



3. How many newspapers are increasing their employment of journalists of color?

More than half of the largest newspapers employed a higher percentage of non-white journalists than a year earlier.

Looking at the raw ASNE figures, among the top 100 newspapers:

  • 55 newspapers improved, raising newsroom minority percentages in the past year
  • 31 newspapers declined, lowering minority percentages
  • 2 newspapers stayed the same
  • 12 newspapers didn't answer the survey in one year or both

Among newspapers of all sizes, gainers and losers were about even. Looking at the raw ASNE figures:

  • 265 newspapers improved, raising minority journalist percentages in the past year (19 percent)
  • 224 newspapers declined, lowering minority percentages (16 percent)
  • 292 newspapers stayed the same (21 percent)
  • 632 newspapers didn't answer in one year or another (45 percent)

Another way of examining the pattern is a statistical analysis of the data, which does offer evidence that many newspapers are sensitive to building newsrooms that look something like the communities they serve. The analysis shows a moderately strong relationship between the percentage of non-white employees in newspapers' circulation areas and the percentage of non-white journalists. In other words, the greater the community minority percentage, the more likely a newspaper is to have a larger proportion of minority journalists.

But the analysis shows that the trend across the industry does not come near the ASNE ideal of parity. Of the newspapers who reported to ASNE, the analysis shows that every 10 point increase in community minority percentage is accompanied by only about a 3.4 point increase in newsroom percentage. But this is an overall view; there is a great deal of variation from newspaper to newspaper. The outliers are the few newspapers that have reached the goal of parity, and the many others still stuck at zero minority journalists.

The analysis also shows that about 32 percent of the variation in newsroom percentage across newspapers can be predicted by the corresponding community percentage, but other factors figure heavily as well. Ownership clearly is one. But some other factors that can't be measured play a role, such as desire to meet the goal, desirability of the community as a place to live, racial change in the community, the reputation of a newspaper, supply of non-white journalists in that area, and extent of the newspaper's recruiting.

Most newspapers sell more copies per household in white neighborhoods than in neighborhoods of color, which is not surprising considering the general differences in income and education. But there are exceptions. The following newspapers have higher sales per household in minority areas than in white areas: The Boston Herald, The Connecticut Post, The Denver Post, The Jersey Journal, The Daily Press of Newport News, The Oakland Tribune, The Philadelphia Daily News, The Record of Stockton, and The Tampa Tribune. (This list includes only those newspapers that reported sales to at least 10 majority-white ZIPs and at least 10 majority-minority ZIPs within 20 miles of the newspaper's home office.)



4. How many newspapers are at their high-water mark?

The study looked at ASNE surveys from 1990 through 2004:

Only about a quarter of the 100 largest newspapers are at their high-water mark in non-white share of newsroom seats.

Out of the top 100 newspapers:

  • 27 employ a larger share of minorities than ever.
  • 62 had a greater minority employment in some earlier year.
  • 11 didn't fill out the survey this year.

The nation's four largest newspapers have fallen from their peak: USA Today peaked in the 1994 report (employment at year-end 1993), The Wall Street Journal in the 2000 report, The New York Times last year, and The Los Angeles Times in 2000.

Other papers in the top 25 that are below their peak level of minority employment are the New York Daily News (peaked in the 1995 report), Chicago Tribune (1998), Newsday (2002), San Francisco Chronicle (1998), The Arizona Republic (2003), The Miami Herald (1999), The Star Tribune in Minneapolis (2001), and The Plain Dealer in Cleveland (1995).

Papers in the top 25 that reached their peak employment of non-whites this year are The Washington Post, Houston Chronicle, The Dallas Morning News, The Boston Globe, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Detroit Free Press, The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Oregonian, and The St. Petersburg Times.

And papers in the top 25 that didn't respond to this year's ASNE survey include The New York Post, The Chicago Sun-Times, and The Star-Ledger in Newark.

Looking more broadly at all newspapers:

  • 167 employ a larger share of minorities than ever. (12 percent)
  • 593 had a greater share of minority employment in some earlier year. (42 percent)
  • 348 are at zero and have never been above zero. (25 percent)
  • 305 did not fill out the survey this year. (22 percent)

Each year's figures for larger newspapers are in
Table 3: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: Top 200 newspapers by circulation (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format.

And for all newspapers, see
Table 4: Historical trends in newsroom diversity, 1990-2004: All daily newspapers, listed by state and city (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format.



5. Are the larger newspapers the ones with more diverse news staffs?

There is a wide variation among newspapers of the same circulation. And some smaller newspapers employ a greater share of minorities than many larger newspapers.

Here's how the Newsroom Diversity Index breaks out by size of newspaper:


Daily circulation Median
Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)
Highest
Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)
Lowest
Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)
a) Over 500,000 circulation 52 74 (Newsday) 29 (New York Daily News)
b) 250,001 to 500,000 66 111 (Boston Globe) 34 (Times Picayune, New Orleans)
c) 100,001 to 250,000 61 169 (Akron Beacon Journal) 19 (Tampa Tribune)
d) 50,001 to 100,000 47 189 (Sioux Falls Argus Leader, S.D.) 11 (Lawrence Eagle-Tribune, Mass.)
e) 25,001 to 50,000 41 285 (St. Cloud Times, Minn.) 0 (many newspapers)
f) 10,001 to 25,000 22 1,328 (Baxter Bulletin, Mountain Home, Ark.) 0 (many newspapers)
g) 5,001 to 10,000 0 686 (Piqua Daily Call, Ohio) 0 (many newspapers)
h) 5,000 and under 0 791 (Little Falls Evening Times, N.Y.) 0 (many newspapers)

Size matters, judging from the median index. Among larger newspapers, the typical Newsroom Diversity Index is higher.

But there is a wide variation in index scores within each group. For every large newspaper that has met the goal, several have not. And many small newspapers are above parity, or close to it, while hundreds of others are still at zero.

How many of the largest newspapers have staffs that are as diverse as their communities?


Among the top 100 newspapers in circulation:
  % of Newspapers Reporting No. of Newspapers Reporting
  2003 2004 2003 2004
100 percent parity or better 11% 11% 10 10
75 to 99 percent 14% 17% 13 15
50 to 74 percent 40% 40% 36 36
25 to 49 percent 33% 29% 30 26
1 to 24 percent 2% 2% 2 2
All-white newsrooms 0% 0% 0 0

(This year, 11 newspapers in the top 100 didn't respond to the survey; last year, 9.)

As this chart shows, there was some improvement at the top for the largest 100 newspapers this year, with two more newspapers reaching at least 75% of parity, for a total of 25. But nearly one out of three large newspapers remain below half of parity.



Among the top 100, the highest Newsroom Diversity Index was at these 10 newspapers:
Rank Newspaper

Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)

1

The Beacon Journal, Akron

169

2

The Des Moines Register

150

3

The Detroit News

132

4

The Knoxville News-Sentinel

128

5

The Post-Standard, Syracuse

125

6

The Boston Globe

110

7

Lexington Herald-Leader

109

8

The Tennessean, Nashville

102

9

The Oregonian, Portland

100

10

Star Tribune, Minneapolis

100




And the lowest Newsroom Diversity Index was at these newspapers:


Rank

Newspaper

Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)

89

The Tampa Tribune

19

88

Journal Newspapers, Alexandria

23

87

The Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk

25

86

Daily News, New York

28

85

The Commercial Appeal, Memphis

29

84

Telegram & Gazette, Worcester

31

83

San Francisco Chronicle

31

82

Los Angeles Daily News, Woodland Hills

31

81

Richmond Times-Dispatch

32

80

The Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City

32




6. Which newspaper companies better reflect their communities?

Among the larger newspaper groups, the average index of all their newspapers (weighted by circulation) is:

Newspaper Company Average Newsroom Diversity Index
(100=parity)

Gannett Co. (Va.)

88

Knight Ridder (Calif.)

76

McClatchy Co. (Calif.)

72

New York Times Co. (N.Y.)

66

Advance (Newhouse) (N.Y.)

65

Cox Enterprises (Ga.)

60

Freedom Communications (Calif.)

60

Pulitzer (Mo.)

55

Tribune Co. (Ill.)

54

Ogden Newspapers (W.Va.)

52

Scripps (Ohio)

52

Community Newspaper Holdings (Ala.)

51

Liberty Group Publishing (Ill.)

51

Washington Post Co. (D.C.)

50

Belo (Texas)

49

Dow Jones (N.Y.)

47

Copley Press (Calif.)

41

Hearst Newspapers (N.Y.)

40

MediaNews Group (Colo.)

40

Lee Enterprises (Iowa)

38

Hollinger International (Ill.)

36

Media General (Va.)

33

Morris Communications (Ga.)

26

Journal Register (N.J.)

19

Paxton Media Group (Ky.)

5


(These are circulation-weighted averages, with larger newspapers in the group counting more toward the average. Only groups with at least 500,000 total circulation, or at least 20 newspapers, are included.)

The list is led by companies with well-known programs of rewarding managers -- with bonuses -- for recruitment of journalists of color.

Some of the larger chains appear to have a farm team of journalists at the smaller newspapers, ready to move up to the larger newspapers. Leave out USA Today, and Gannett's other newspapers have a combined score of 102, or greater minority employment than the minority share of their circulation areas.

The rankings of larger newspaper groups are in
Table 7: Large newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format.

And groups with fewer newspapers, or lower total circulation, are in
Table 8: Small newspaper companies, ranked by Newsroom Diversity Index (PDF format)
or see the table in Excel format



How the study was done

The analysis used three types of data: (1) ASNE's survey of newsroom staffing, (2) audited circulation data to determine a circulation area, and (3) the 2000 Census to determine the demographics of that area.

The report includes all information on the communities of 1,413 newspapers surveyed by ASNE. Of those, 932 responded to the ASNE survey, a response rate of 66 percent.

Each newspaper was given a score, or Newsroom Diversity Index, to indicate its relative success in reaching parity with its community. A newspaper scored 100, for example, if its news staff and its community had the same percentage of non-whites.

The newsroom staffing figures came from the annual surveys of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. ASNE counts as minorities Hispanics, African-Americans, Asians and Native Americans. Its survey includes newsroom supervisors, reporters, copy editors, photographers and artists. ASNE reports only a single "minority" percentage for each newspaper, not the percentages for individual racial or ethnic groups. ASNE provided a list of newspapers surveyed, allowing the researchers to list the newspapers that did not respond.

The most precise available figure to represent the circulation area was used, following these rules:

1. For the four national newspapers without circulation centered in any one community -- USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and the Christian Science Monitor -- this study used the U.S. non-white population (30.9 percent in Census 2000) as the target. The four national newspapers are marked as "USA" in the reports.

2. If a newspaper filed circulation figures for ZIP Codes with the Audit Bureau of Circulations, those figures were used to draw the circulation area. In all, 857 newspapers filed ZIPs. Most large and medium-sized newspapers are in this category. These newspapers are marked as "ZIPs" in the reports.

3. If a newspaper filed only county-level circulation reports with ABC, those figures were used. These 13 newspapers are marked with "Counties."

That leaves 539 (mostly smaller) newspapers with no ABC data to describe a circulation area.

4. Most of those newspapers are the only newspaper in their home county, and for those the home county was presumed to be the circulation area. Those 427 newspapers are marked as "Home County."

5. The remainder of those newspapers posed the Palo Alto problem. When a newspaper was not the only one in the county, and was located in a smaller city in the county, it wouldn't be fair to assign the demographics of all of, say, Santa Clara County (56 percent non-white) to the newspaper in Palo Alto (where the city is only 27 percent non-white). So the home city was used to look up the demographics. These 112 newspapers are marked as "Home city."

In looking up the demographics of these areas in the 2000 U.S. Census, ASNE's definition of minority was used, which includes everyone except non-Hispanic whites.

To determine the top 200 newspapers by circulation, this report used the weekday average circulation reported in the online version of Editor and Publisher magazine in April 2004. This is also the daily circulation figure listed in all tables.



About the researchers

Bill Dedman is a correspondent for The Boston Globe, where he writes investigative articles, helps other reporters and editors, and trains the staff in computer-assisted reporting. In 1989, he received the Pulitzer Prize in investigative reporting for "The Color of Money," a series of articles in The Atlanta Journal-Constitution on racial discrimination by mortgage lenders. His Power Reporting site on the Web is used by many journalists as a starting point for research, and he has led seminars in more than 100 newsrooms. He was the first director of computer-assisted reporting for the Associated Press. Bill started in journalism at age 16 as a copy boy at The Chattanooga Times, and has reported for The Washington Post and The New York Times. He has taught advanced reporting at Boston University, the University of Maryland and Northwestern University. E-mail him at Bill@PowerReporting.com .

Stephen K. Doig is interim director of the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication of Arizona State University. He also holds the Knight Chair in Journalism, specializing in computer-assisted reporting. Before joining ASU in 1996, he was research editor of The Miami Herald, where he worked for 19 years. Various computer-assisted projects on which he worked at The Herald have won the Pulitzer Prize for public service, the Investigative Reporters and Editors Award, the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting, and other awards. He serves as a member of the board of directors of Investigative Reporters and Editors. Steve's research interests include helping journalists use social science methods and census and other demographic information to enhance their understanding of, and reporting about, community issues. E-mail him at Steve.Doig@ASU.edu .

The researchers thank the staff of the GIS lab at Arizona State University, which developed the online maps, and the staff of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, particularly Bobbi Bowman and Scott Bosley, for their cooperation.



About the Knight Foundation

The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation promotes excellence in journalism worldwide and invests in the vitality of 26 U.S. communities.



Where to find more information:

This report is on the Web at www.asu.edu/cronkite/asne .

This is the 2004 report. The 2003 report is archived at www.powerreporting.com/knight/2003/ .

ASNE's survey report is also on the Web, with information on newsroom diversity, at www.asne.org .

Links to other readings on newsroom diversity are at The Freedom Forum .

Associations of journalists of color are joined under the umbrella group UNITY. Individual associations are listed at Power Reporting, along with resources on computer-assisted reporting.

Please send comments and questions to Bill Dedman at Bill@PowerReporting.com and Steve Doig at Steve.Doig@ASU.edu .